Event Details


Title:Hard landing, Boeing 747-269B, March 22, 1997
Micro summary:This Boeing 747-269B experienced a hard landing during difficult lighting conditions.
Event Time:1997-03-22 at 644 AST
File Name:1997-03-22-US.pdf
Publishing Agency:National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
Publishing Country:USA
Report number:CHI97IA096
Pages:5
Site of event:Manaus, Brazil
Departure:Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, USA
Destination:Eduardo Gomes International Airport, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil
Airplane Type(s):Boeing 747-269B
Flight Phase:Landing
Registration(s):N707CK
Operator(s):American International Airways
Type of flight:Cargo
Occupants:7
Fatalities:0
Serious Injuries:0
Minor/Non-Injured:7
Other Injuries:0
Executive Summary:

NTSB short summary:

the pilot-in-command's (non-flying pilot) improper flare. Related factors were inadequate crew/coordination, haze and sunglare.

NTSB synopsis:

The flightcrew reported that the landing was into the early morning sun approximately 30 minutes after local sunrise. They reported that the glare from the sun was intense and the flying pilot installed his windshield sun shade at the other marker. They said that the 1,000 foot and 500 foot call outs were made with confirmation of the runway in sight. The flying pilot continued to fly on instruments to decision height. They said that at approximately 1,000 feet the glare increased with low haze and the forward visibility decreased. The flying pilot considered the airplane to be in the correct attitude for landing; however, the non-flying (PIC) took control prior to touchdown and flared the airplane when he saw no apparent flare. The airplane then touched down hard. A readout of the Flight Data Recorder revealed touchdown produced 2.77 'G.' The data indicated that the sink rate increased when the non-flying pilot moved the control column aft in an attempt to flare the airplane.

NTSB factual narrative text:

On March 22, 1997, at 0644 atlantic standard time, a Boeing 747-269B, N707CK, owned and operated by American International Airways, Inc., sustained minor damage during a hard landing at Manaus, Brazil. Flight 903 was a cargo flight which departed Miami, Florida, at 0152. There were no injuries reported by the crew of seven. Visual meteorological conditions prevailed at the time of the incident. The flight was operating under provisions of 14 CFR Part 121 and an IFR flight plan was on file. The pilot reported glare from landing into the sun resulted in a hard landing.

Both of the pilots held Captain ratings with the airline. Prior to commencing the flight they determined between themselves who would act as the pilot-in-command and who would act as the second pilot for this flight. Because they both held the status of Captain either could operate the airplane from the left seat. They decided that the pilot-in-command would occupy the right seat and act as the non-flying pilot while the second pilot would occupy the left seat and act as the flying pilot.

During interviews and written statements, they said the landing was into the early morning sun approximately 30 minutes after local sunrise. They reported that the glare from the sun was intense and the flying pilot installed his windshield sun shade at the other marker. They said that the 1,000 foot and 500 foot call outs were made with confirmation of the runway in sight. The flying pilot continued to fly on instruments to decision height. They said that at approximately 1,000 feet the glare increased with low haze and the forward visibility decreased. In their written statement they said that the flying pilot considered the airplane to be in the correct attitude for landing; however, the non-flying (PIC) took control prior to touchdown and flared the airplane when he saw no apparent flare. The airplane then touched down hard.

An inspection of the airplane after the hard landing found wrinkles in the fuselage. The airplane was ferried back to the maintenance base in Michigan, where it was subjected for further inspection. It was determined that the damage was minor.

The "Flight Data Recorder" was removed and the data analyzed by the NTSB's Office of Research and Engineering. A copy of the Factual Report is attached as an addendum to this report. The report confirms a hard landing at Manaus, Brazil, where the touchdown produced 2.77 "G." The data indicated that the sink rate increased when the non-flying pilot moved the control column aft in an attempt to flare the airplane.
Learning Keywords:Operations - Crew Resource Management
Operations - Hard Landing
Operations - Whiteout or Poor Visibility from Cockpit

 




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