|Title:||Controlled Flight Into Terrain, American Airlines Flight 965, near Cali, Colombia, December 20, 1995, Boeing 757-223, N651AA (Recommended)|
|Micro summary:||This Boeing 757 flew into terrain while executing an approach into Cali.|
|Event Time:||1995-12-20 at 2142 EST|
|Publishing Agency:||Aeronautica Civil|
|Site of event:||Approach to Cali|
|Departure:||Miami International Airport, Miami, Florida, USA|
|Destination:||Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Airport, Cali, Colombia|
|Airplane Type(s):||Boeing 757-223|
|Type of flight:||Revenue|
|Executive Summary:||At 2142 eastern standard time (est)', on December 20, 1995, American Azrlines Flight 965 (AA965), a Boeing 757-223, N651AA, on a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Mzami International Azrport (MIA), Florida, U.S.A., to Alfonso Bonilla Aragon International Azrport (SKCL), in Cali, Colombia, operating under instrument flight rules (IFR), crashed into mountainous terrain during a descent fi-om cruise altitude in visual meteorologcal conditions (VMC). The accident site was near the town of Buga, 33 miles northeast of the Cali VOR2 (CLO). The airplane impacted at about 8,900 feet mean sea level (msl), near the summit of El Deluvio and approximately 10 miles east of Aznvay W3. Of the 155 passengers, 2 flightcrew members, and 6 cabincrew members on board, 4 passengers survived the accident. |
Aeronautica Civil determines that the probable causes of ths accident were:
1. The flightcrew’s failure to adequately plan and execute the approach to runway 19 at SKCL and their inadequate use of automation.
2. Failure of the flightcrew to discontinue the approach into Cali, despite numerous cues alerting them of the inadvisability of continuing the approach.
3. The lack of situational awareness of the flightcrew regarding vertical navigation, proximity to terrain, and the relative location of critical radio aids.
4. Failure of the flightcrew to revert to basic radio navigation at the time when the FMS-assisted navigation became confusing and demanded an excessive workload in a critical phase of the flight.
|Learning Keywords:||Operations - Crew Resource Management|
|Operations - Controlled Flight Into Terrain|
|Systems - Automation Design|
|Systems - INS/FMS/PMCS mis-entry|
|Other - Workplace Culture or Management|
|Consequence - Hull Loss|
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